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Filsafat Ilmu

2009 September 24

Filsafat dan ilmu merupakan dua kata yang tidak dapat dipisahkan.
Filsafat membawa bangsa Yunani awalnya dan umat manusia berikutnya dari pandangan mitologis menjadi pandangan logis.
Semula alam diduga akibat pekerjaan dewa sehingga dewa harus ditakuti karena berpengaruh terhadap alam. Dengan tumbuhnya filsafat mengubah pola pikir dari ketergantungan terhadap dewa menjadi dorongan penalaran berdasar rasio.
Perkembangan filsafat menuju paradigma berpikir rasionalistis melahirkan hukum-hukum alam dan teori-teori ilmiah.
Hukum-hukum dan teori-teori ilmiah ini lebih mampu menjelaskan perubahan yang terjadi di jagad raya dan keadaan manusia.
Dari penelitian-penelitian ilmiah, bermunculan pula ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan ilmiah yang kemudian ilmu-ilmu tersebut terdiferensiasi dan berpilah-pilah menuju konvergensi spesialisasi dan semakin aplikatif.
Ilmu yang terbagi menjadi berbagai disiplin dan terbagi membutuhkan pendekatan, sifat, obyek, tujuan dan ukuran yang berbeda satu sama lain.
Akhirnya, cabang ilmu semakin subur dengan segala macam heterogenitas kedisiplinannya. Hal ini semakin menambah sekat-sekat di antara ilmu pengetahuan tersebut dan jurang antara kecabangan ilmu tadi semakin lebar dan dalam.
Keprihatinan yang mendalam berikutnya terlahir dari semakin terpisahnya hakikat ilmu pengethauan dengan nilai luhur ilmu itu sendiri, yakni menyejahterakan umat manusia. Tidak mustahil, hasil penelitian ilmiah yang kemudian menjadi aplikatif malah menjadi bencana bagi umat manusia dengan adanya pemanasan global dan dehumanisasi.
Teknologi yang muncul sebagai bentuk aplikatif dari ilmu pengetahuan menjadi katalis menebar hal-hal negatif pengetahuan tersebut.
Konteks antara ilmu dan teknologi yang semakin hilang ruhnya dari nilai fundamental ilmu pengetahuan mengeliminir peran manusia dan manusia pun tanpa sadar menjadi budak ilmu dan teknologi.
Karena itu filsafat ilmu berusaha mengembalikan tujuan luhur ilmu agar ilmu tidak menjadi bumerang bagi umat manusia.
Tujuan filsafat ilmu mempertegas bahwa ilmu dan teknologi sebagai instrumen (alat).

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