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Dasar-Dasar Supervisi Pendidikan

2009 November 19

Menurut Suharsimi Arikunto, supervisi mengandung arti dengan beberapa istilah berikut :

Inspeksi : melihat untuk mencari kesalahan-kesalahan

Pemeriksaan : melihat yang terjadi dalam sebuah kegiatan

Pengawasan dan penilikan : melihat yang positif dan yang negatif dalam suatu kegiatan

Supervisi : melihat dari atas, yang berarti oleh seseorang atau jabatan  setingkat di atas guru (Kepala Sekolah dan Pengawas Sekolah) dan lebih ke arah pembinaan dan perbaikan kegiatan proses pembelajaran.

Menurut Made Pidarta, supervisi pendidikan adalah kegiatan membina para pendidik dalam mengembangkan proses pembelajaran termasuk segala unsur penunjangnya.

Namun yang sebenarnya dilakukan dalam supervisi adalah supervisi kontekstual, Samani dalam Made Pidarta mengatakan

supervisi kontekstual adalah supervisi yang berorientasi pada sistem pendidikan desentralisasi yang mewarnai konteks pendidikan mengenai bahan yang cocok yang ajarkan dan dipelajari oleh siswa di suatu daerah besera kecakapan hidup yang diperlukan di daerah tersebut.
Karena yang lebih tepat diajarkan adalah pembelajaran kontekstual sehingga supervisinya pun kontekstual.

Supervisi kontekstual memberikan makna bahwa sifat supervisi yang misi dan isinya berbeda pada setiap daerah, mengingat materi dan pembelajaran di setiap daerah berbeda-beda di samping itu setiap pembelajaran ini memerlukan pembinaan tersendiri yang lebih spesifik.

Unsur-unsur yang dibina melalui supervisi antara lain :

  1. Materi pelajaran.
  2. Proses pembelajaran.
  3. kecakapan hidup yang dibutuhkan peserta didik.
  4. Tingkat kompetensi setiap guru.
  5. Kondisi para peserta didik.

Tujuan Supervisi

Fungsi berhubungan dengan organisasi secara keseluruhan.
Tujuan berhubungan dengan kegunaan dengan maksud supervisi digunakan untuk apa ?

Maka fungsi supervisi dalam pendidikan untuk memberi pembinaan dalam kerangka arah dalam proses pendidikan sesuai dengan keperluan tertentu sehingga membantu sekolah atau lembaga pendidikan formal agar mampu menciptakan lulusan yang baik dalam kuantitas dan kualitas, serta membantu para guru agar bisa dan dapat bekerja secara profesional sesuai kondisi masyarakat setempat.

Tujuan supervisi adalah rincian dari hal-hal yang PATUT dikerjakan dalam kegiatan pembinaan pembelajaran. Sehingga guru mampu mengembangkan profesinya, pribadinya, sosialnya, membantu kepala sekolah menyesuaikan program pendidikan dengan kondisi masyarakat setempat dan turut berjuang meningkatkan kuantitas dan kualitas lulusan sekolah.

(Made Pidarta, 2009:3)

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