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Keterampilan Supervisor

2009 December 1

Keterampilan dasar seorang supervisor :( menurut Kimball Wiles, 1955) dalam Piet Sahertian (2008:18)

  1. keterampilan dalam hubungan-hubungan kemanusiaan.
  2. Keterampilan dalam proses kelompok.
  3. Keterampilan dalam kepemimpinan pendidikan.
  4. Keterampilan dan mengatur personalia sekolah.
  5. Keterampilan dalam evaluasi.

Dalam Supervision for Today’s School oleh Peter F. Oliva (1984) mengutip pendapat Haris, bahwa supervisi pengajaran adalah segala sesuatu usaha yang dilakukan personel pendidikan untuk memelihara atau mengubah yang dilakukan sekolah dengan cara langsung mempengaruhi proses belajar mengajar dalam usaha meningkatkan proses belajar siswa.

Alfonso RJ (1981) dalam Peter Oliva (1984) menyatakan, supervisi pengajaran adalah tindak laku pejabat yang dirancang oleh lembaga yang berpengaruh langsung terhadap perilaku guru dalam berbagai cara untuk membantu cara belajar siswa sekaligus mencapai tujuan lembaga tersebut.

Kimbal Willes menjelaskan bahwa supervisi pengajaran sebagai sistem tingkah laku formal yang dipersiapkan sebuah lembaga untuk mencapai interaksi dengan sistem perilaku mengajar dengan cara memelihara, mengubah, dan memperbaiki rencana serta aktualisasi kesempatan belajar siswa. Maka supervisi pengajaran berpusat pada :

  • perilaku supervisor
  • membantu guru-guru
  • mengangkat harapan belajar peserta didik

Maka disimpulkan bahwa supervisi adalah usaha layanan atau bantuan kepada guru-guru secara individual maupun kolektif untuk memperbaiki pengajaran.

Menurut Peter Oliva, sasaran supervisi pendidikan adalah :

  1. Mengembangkan kurikulum yang sedang dilaksanakan di sekolah.
  2. Meningkatkan proses belajar-mengajar.
  3. Mengembangkan seluruh staf (pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan) di sekolah.

Prinsip Supervisi pendidikan :

  1. prinsip ilmiah
  2. prinsip demokratis
  3. prinsip kerjasama
  4. prinsip konstruktif dan kreatif

Fungsi supervisi pendidikan menurut Swearingen dalam Supervision of Instruction (foundation and dimension) tahun 1961 adalah :

  1. Mengkoordinasi semua usaha sekolah.
  2. Melengkapi kepemimpinan sekolah.
  3. Memperluas pengalaman guru-guru.
  4. Menstimulasi usaha-usaha kreatif.
  5. Memberi fasilitas dan penilaian terus-menerus.
  6. Menganalisis situasi belajar mengajar.
  7. Memberikan pengetahuan dan keterampilan bagi setiap staf sekolah.
  8. Memberi wawasan dan terintegrasi dalam merumuskan tujuan-tujuan pendidikan serta meningkatkan kemampuan guru dalam mengajar.

Peter Oliva (1976) menyatakan seorang supervisor dapat berperan sebagai : koordinator, konsultan, pemimpin kelompok, dan evaluator.

Bantuan yang diberikan oleh supervisor dalam meningkatkan kemampuan guru adalah :

  1. Merancang program belajar mengajar.
  2. Melaksanakan proses belajar mengajar.
  3. Menilai proses dan hasil belajar.
  4. Mengembangkan manajemen kelas.
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